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Spring - Using @Value Annotation

[Last Updated: Jun 11, 2021]

In previous tutorials we saw different ways to access properties provided by Environment. In this tutorial we will see how to use @Value annotation to access individual properties without using Environment.

Definition of Value

(Version: spring-framework 5.3.7)
package org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation;
   ........
@Target({ElementType.FIELD, ElementType.METHOD, ElementType.PARAMETER, ElementType.ANNOTATION_TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
public @interface Value {
    String value(); 1
}
1 The actual value expression such as #{systemProperties.myProp} or property placeholder such as ${my.app.myProp}.

Example

External Property File

src/main/resources/app.properties

contact-person=Monica J. Pace

Using @Value

package com.logicbig.example;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
import javax.annotation.PostConstruct;

@Component
public class MyBean {
  @Value("${java.io.tmpdir:/temp}")
  private String tempDir;
  @Value("${contact-person:Joe}")
  private String contactPerson;

  @PostConstruct
  public void postInit() {
      System.out.println("System tempDir: " + tempDir);
      System.out.println("contact-person: " + contactPerson);
  }
}

It is possible to provide a default value after colon as seen above ('Joe' is the default value for contact person). So if a property (contact-person in our example) cannot be found the default value will be use at the injection point.

Java Config and main method

package com.logicbig.example;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.*;
import org.springframework.context.support.PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer;

@Configuration
@PropertySource("classpath:app.properties")
@ComponentScan
public class UserPropertySourceExample {

  @Bean
  public static PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer propertyPlaceholderConfigurer() {
      return new PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
      new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(UserPropertySourceExample.class);
  }
}

Output

System tempDir: C:\Users\joe\AppData\Local\Temp\
contact-person: Monica J. Pace

As seen in above class, we also have to register PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer as a bean for @Value annotation to work.

Example Project

Dependencies and Technologies Used:

  • spring-context 5.3.8: Spring Context. Version Compatibility: 3.2.9.RELEASE - 5.3.8 Version List
    ×

    Version compatibilities of spring-context with this example:

    • 3.2.9.RELEASE
    • 3.2.10.RELEASE
    • 3.2.11.RELEASE
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    • 3.2.13.RELEASE
    • 3.2.14.RELEASE
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    • 5.1.15.RELEASE
    • 5.1.16.RELEASE
    • 5.1.17.RELEASE
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    • 5.1.20.RELEASE
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    Versions in green have been tested.

  • JDK 8
  • Maven 3.8.1

Spring - @Value Example Select All Download
  • spring-value-annotation
    • src
      • main
        • java
          • com
            • logicbig
              • example
                • MyBean.java
          • resources

    See Also